PATHOGNOMIC DISTRIBUTION OF VIRULENCE VNN (Viral Nervous Necrotic) IN TILAPIA FRY (Oreochromis sp.)
Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) is a virus that attacks the many marine farmed fish, especially snapper and grouper. Some existing research stating that VNN can also infect several species of freshwater and brackish water fish, one of which tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). The purpose of this study was to determine the genomic VNN on tilapia fry with histopathological analysis and RT-PCR in order to illustrate the distribution of virulence VNN pathognomik qualitatively and quantitatively. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. Tilapia fry sample size of 6-8 cm were taken at several locations cultivation of tilapia and a suspect area VNN. Samples were examined clinically and were selected which showed positive PCR results on VNN, then tested its organ damage macroscopically (anatomic pathology) and microscopic (histopathological) and tested the distribution of the virus by RT-PCR. Observations on the tilapia fry infected with VNN indicate changes and damage to the organs and tissues that can be seen from the examination of clinical symptoms, anatomic pathology and histopathology. Tilapia fry qualitatively (histopathology) showed vacuolization and inclusion body in the organs of the brain and eyes, other damage is also found in liver, kidney, spleen, gills, intestines and muscles; whereas quantitative (RT-PCR) nearly every organ produces positive VNN, except gills and intestines.
Athanassopoulou, F., Billinis, C., Prapas, T. 2004. Important disease conditions of newly cultured species in intensive freshwater farms in Greece: first incidence of nodavirus infection in Acipenser sp. Dis Aquat Organ. 60: 247-252.
BigarrÃ©, L., Cabon, J., Baud, M., Heimann, M., Body, A., Lieffrig, F., and Castric, J. 2009. Outbreak of betanodavirus infection in tilapia, Oreochromis nilotikus (L) in fresh water. J. Fish Dis., 32: 667 â€“ 673.
Bovo, G., Nishizawa, T., Maltese, C., Borghesan, F., Mutinelli, F., Montesi F, and De Mas S. 1999. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy of farmed marine fish species in Italy. Virus Res 63: 143 â€“ 146.
Haywood, A. M. 1994. Virus receptors : binding, adhesion strengthening, and changes in viral structure. Journal of Virology 68: 1 - 5.
Hegde, A., The, H.C., Lam, T.J., and Sin, Y.M. 2003. Nodavirus infection in freshwater ornamental fish, guppy, Poicelia reticulata - comparative characterization and pathogenicity studies. Arch. Virol., 148: 575 - 586.
Jitheran, K.P., Shekhar, M.S., Kannappan, S., Azad I,S. 2011. Nodavirus infection in freshwater ornamental fishes in India: diagnostic histopathology and nested RT-PCR. Asian fish Soc., 24: 12-19.
Keawcharoen, J., Techangamsuwan, S., Ponpornpisit, A., Lombardini, E D, Patchimasiri, T., and Pirarat, N. 2015. Genetic characterization of a betanodavirus isolated from a clinical disease outbreak in farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Thailand. J Fish Dis. 38: 49-54.
Maeno, Y., de la Pena, L.D., and cruz-lacierda, E.R. 2002. Nodavirus infection in hatchery-reared orange-spotted grouper Ephinephelus coioides: First record of viral nerveous necrocis in the Philippines. Fish Pathol., 37: 87-89.
Munday, B.L., Kwang, J., and Moody, N. 2002. Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review. J. Fish Dis., 25: 127 - 142.
Yuwanita, R., Yanuhar, U., Hardoko. 2013. Pathognomonic of Viral Nerveous Necrotic (VNN) virulence on larvae of humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis). Adv. Environ. Bio., 7(6): 1074-1081.
Copyright (c) 2016 Novia Christi Prihartini
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.